Tuesday, July 2, 2019

Earth Science Topics


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1.1 Observations and Inferences
Observations
Inferences
Classification

1.2 Scientific Notation

1.3 Scientific Measurement
Length
Temperature
Time
Volume
Mass

1.4 Density
Formula
Temperature and Density
Pressure and Density
Buoyancy

1.5 Graphing
X-axis
Y-axis
Direct relationship
Indirect Relationship
Cyclic Relationship
Dynamic Equilibrium

1.6 Rate of Change
Formula

1.7 Earth’s Layers
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Crust
Plastic Mantle
Stiffer Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core


2.0 Earth’s Shape and Gravity
Oblate spheroid
Gravity
Distance and gravity relationship
Mass and Gravity Relationship


2.1 Maps
Compass Points
Legend
Scale


2.2 Latitude & Longitude
Latitude
Longitude
Degrees, minutes, seconds


2.3 Polaris
North Star
Polaris altitude = Latitude
Big Dipper


2.4 Time Change
Local Time
Time Zones

Prime Meridian

3.0 Altitude
Topography
Topographic Maps
Altitude


3.1 Interpreting Topographic Maps
Isolines
Contour Lines
Isotherms
Isobars
Index Contour Line
Contour Interval
Estimating Elevation
Gradient
Steep Slope
Gradual Slope
Hachure Marks
Rivers and Streams


3.2 Calculating Gradient
Gradient Formula


3.3 Contour Lines
Rules for Contour Lines



3.4 Constructing a Profile

4.1 What is Astronomy?
Astronomy
Geocentric
Heliocentric
Retrograde Motion
Elliptical Orbits
Eccentricity
Orbital speed and Distance
Gravitational Force and Distance


4.2 Earth’s Motions
Rotation > Day and Night
Foucault’s Pendulum
Mean Solar Day
Sidereal Day
Revolution
Tilt of Axis > Seasons
Precession


4.3 Seasons
Tilt of Earth
Point of View from Outer Space


4.4 Celestial Objects
Apparent Motion
Real Motion
Zenith
Horizon
Constellations move
Stars rotate around Polaris
Noon Sun
Shadows


4.5 Path of the Sun
Zenith
Horizon
Solar Noon

4.6 Insolation

5.1 Solar System
Nebular Theory
Terrestrial Planets
Jovial Planets


5.2 Stars
Constellations
Light Year
Apparent Magnitude
Absolute Magnitude
H-R Diagram


5.3 Moon
Orbit
Tides
Neap Tide
Spring Tide


5.4 Moon Phases
Waxing
Waining
Solar Eclipse
Lunar Eclipse

5.5 The Universe
Our Sun
Universe
Galaxy
The Milky Way
The Doppler effect
Red Shifts
Blue Shifts
Hubble’s law
The Big Bang Theory

6.1 Layers of the Atmosphere
Pressure Changes
Temperature Changes
Northern Lights


6.2 Atmospheric Characteristics
Composition of the Atmosphere
Ozone
Human Impacts


6.3 Heating of the Atmosphere
Heat
Temperature
Heat Transfer
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Electromagnetic Spectrum


6.4 Change of State
Phase change graph


6.5 Air Pressure
Altitude
Temperature
Humidity
Station Model Conversions


6.6 Relative Humidity & Dewpoint
Absolute Humidity
Relative Humidity
Saturation
Dewpoint

6.7 Relative Humidity & Dewpoint Related
Sling Psychrometer
Reference Tables


6.8 Precipitation & Clouds
Orographic Lifting
Cloud Types


6.9 Pressure and Wind
Low Pressure System
High Pressure System
Wind Direction and Speed


6.10 Local Winds
Specific Heat
Sea Breeze
Land Breeze


6.11 Global Winds
Doldrums
Trade Winds
Prevailing Westerlies
Polar Easterlies
Coriolis Effect


6.12 Ocean Currents
Reference Tables

7.1 Daily Weather
Weather vs Climate
Daily Temperature Patterns
Yearly Temperature Patterns
Dewpoint Temperature


7.2 Air Masses
Maritime or Continental
Polar or Tropical


7.3 Fronts
Cold
Warm 
Stationary
Occluded
Cyclone
Anticyclone


7.4 Station Models


7.5 Interpreting Weather Maps
Isolines
Pressure Gradient


7.6 Factors that Affect Climate
Latitude
Altitude
Topography
Land vs Water
Atmospheric Circulation
Geographic Position
Vegetation
Clouds


7.7 Severe Storms
Thunderstorms
Nor’Easters
Hurricanes
Tornados


7.8 Greenhouse Effect


8.1 Weathering
Mechanical
Frost Wedging
Root Action
Unloading
Chemical
Hydrolysis
Oxidation
Carbonic Acid


8.2 Factors that affect Weathering
Time Exposed
Surface Area
Mineral Composition
Climatic Conditions


8.3 Dirt
Soil Texture
Soil Composition
Soil Profile


8.4 Erosional Depositional System - Gravity
Mass Movement
Slumps
Flows

Creep

8.5 Erosional Depositional System - Wind
Erosion
Deposition
Landforms


8.6 Erosional Depositional System - Waves


8.7 Erosional Depositional System -Glaciers


8.8 Characteristics of a Stream
Stream Flow
Discharge
Meanders

8.9 Streams - Erosion and Deposition
Reference Tables - Particle Size
Stream Profiles
Stream Landforms

9.1 Landscape Regions
Topography
Relief
Mountains
Plateaus
Plains
Drainage Patterns


9.2 Water Cycle


9.3 Permeability
Porosity
Permeability
Capillarity


9.4 Infiltration and Runoff
Infiltration
Runoff
Factors that Affect Groundwater
Gradient
Soil Composition
Large vs Small Particles
Sorted vs Unsorted
More Rain vs. Less Rain
Amt of Vegetation


9.5 Groundwater
Water Table
Groundwater Aquifer
Springs
Geysers
Well

10.1 Earth’s Interior
Layers of the Earth


10.2 Continental Drift
Pangaea
The Continental Puzzle
Fossils
Rock types and Landforms
Ancient Climates


10.3 Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Paleomagnetism
Ocean Drilling
Earthquake Patterns
Hot Spots


10.4 Plate Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
Transform Fault Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries


10.5 Ocean Floor
Continental Margin
Abyssal Plain
Mid Ocean Ridge
Rift Valley
Trench
Seamount/Island


10.6 What is an Earthquake?
Focus
Faults
Seismograph
Primary Waves (P waves)
Secondary Waves (S waves)
Surface Waves (L waves)




10.7 Epicenter


10.8 Natural Disasters


11.1 Minerals
Inorganic
Crystalline Structures
Identifying Characteristics


11.2 Rock Cycle


11.3 Sedimentary Rocks


11.4 Igneous Rocks


11.5 Metamorphic Rocks


12.1 Relative Dating
Uniformitarianism
Bedrock
Out Crop
Law of Superposition
Law of Horizontality
Cross-Cutting Relationships
Unconformity


12.2 Absolute Dating
Absolute Age
Relative Age
Atomic Structure
Isotopes
Radioactive Decay
Half - Life
Radiometric Dating
Carbon - 14


12.3 Evolution of Life
Life on Earth


12.4 How to Correlate Rocks
Fossil evidence
Index Fossils
Key Beds

Earth Science Reference Tables